The city of Helena is the capital of the state. A competitive suggestion to the Montana state motto, "Oro y Plata", was another 'golden' expression, "El Dorado" ('place of gold' or 'golden one' - "El Dorado" is also a popular reference to a mythical land of great wealth and fortune). Additionally, more than 10,000 invertebrate species are present, including 180 mollusks and 30 crustaceans. Montana RailLink, a privately held Class II railroad, operates former Northern Pacific trackage in western Montana. A random draw grants a limited number of permits for moose, mountain goats and bighorn sheep. Montana", University of Montana, Bureau of Business and Economic Research 2011, "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States", "Population of Montana: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts", Census Bureau-Annual Estimates of Race 2012, Montana Office of Public Instruction 2009, https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/2015/comm/percent-veterans.html, "The Association of Religion Data Archives—Maps & Reports", "Montana Constitution, Article X, section 1", "Montana Schools Try to Keep Indian Students Engaged by Teaching Indian Culture to All", "National Vital Statistics Reports Volumne 64, Number 1, January 15, 2015", "National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 64, Number 12, December 23, 2015 (The general fertility rate for 2014 on page 4 was corrected to read 62.9 on December 23, 2015. Another Montana state slogan. In this school students were charged $1.75 per week. Historic tribes encountered by Europeans and settlers from the United States included the Crow in the south-central area, the Cheyenne in the very southeast, the Blackfeet, Assiniboine, and Gros Ventres in the central and north-central area, and the Kootenai and Salish in the west. The District Courts suffer from excessive workload, and the legislature has struggled to find a solution to the problem. Many people left, and half the banks in the state went bankrupt as a result of providing mortgages that could not be repaid. The constitution requires the establishment of a Montana Supreme Court and Montana District Courts, and permits the legislature to establish Justice Courts, City Courts, Municipal Courts, and other inferior courts such as the legislature sees fit to establish. He lived in Minnesota or Wisconsin, Massachusetts or Maine. [290] Montana voters amended the 1889 constitution 37 times between 1889 and 1972. [60] Farther downstream, it is joined by the Flathead River before entering Idaho near Lake Pend Oreille. The District Courts also have de novo appellate jurisdiction from inferior courts (city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts), and oversee naturalization proceedings. On January 20, 1954, −70 °F or −56.7 °C was recorded at a gold mining camp near Rogers Pass. [185] The largest European ancestry groups in Montana as of 2010 are: German (27.0%), Irish (14.8%), English (12.6%), Norwegian (10.9%), French (4.7%), and Italian (3.4%). Eastern Montana comprises plains and badlands, broken by hills and isolated mountain ranges, and has a semiarid, continental climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). [236] James Willard Schultz ("Apikuni") from Browning is most noted for his prolific stories about Blackfeet life and his contributions to the naming of prominent features in Glacier National Park.[237]. [11] Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but the Committee on Territories decided they could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted.[11]. [206], About 66,000 people of Native American heritage live in Montana. (Gold and silver) Alaska. [126] In 1869 and 1870 respectively, the Cook–Folsom–Peterson and the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expeditions were launched from Helena into the Upper Yellowstone region and directly led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872. [225] Approximately 12.2 million non-residents visited Montana in 2018, and the population was estimated to be 1.06 million. Before the creation of Montana Territory (1864–1889), areas within present-day Montana were part of the Oregon Territory (1848–1859), Washington Territory (1853–1863), Idaho Territory (1863–1864), and Dakota Territory (1861–1864). It is bordered by Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the east; Wyoming to the south; and by the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan to the north. Evelyn Cameron, a naturalist and photographer from Terry documented early 20th century life on the Montana prairie, taking startlingly clear pictures of everything around her: cowboys, sheepherders, weddings, river crossings, freight wagons, people working, badlands, eagles, coyotes and wolves. The legislative branch had split party control between the house and senate most years between 2004 and 2010, when the mid-term elections returned both branches to Republican control. Go here for mottos of other states. Major events include: There are no major league sports franchises in Montana due to the state's relatively small and dispersed population, but a number of minor league teams play in the state. Historically, U.S. Route 10 was the primary east–west highway route across Montana, connecting the major cities in the southern half of the state. Most of the United States' 50 states have a state motto, as do the District of Columbia, and 3 … [317] All other symbols were adopted throughout the 20th century, save for Montana's newest symbol, the state butterfly, the mourning cloak, adopted in 2001,[315] and the state lullaby, "Montana Lullaby", adopted in 2007. All waters in Montana west of the divide flow into the Columbia River. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment. More than 40 spent time in prison. Minnesota or Wisconsin, Massachusetts or Maine in 1875 [ 145 ] in 1902, US. 'S 1st congressional district [ 22 ] the state motto is expressed ``! 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